Consumers in the Marketplace: Perception
The immediate response to sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to such basic stimuli as light, colour and sound
Based on our senses
The process by which stimuli are selected, organized and interpreted. How we understand and percieve things
The process of perception involves exposure, attention and interpretation
Five Senses Magnum
Sony Bravia paint
See the making of Sony Paint video
The Rise of Scent Marketing
Scientific research has suggested "that distinct combinations of just a few notes — known in the advertising world as a sonic brand — could have more influence on consumers than the longer, frequently changing jingles... Most sonic brands are versatile enough to be expanded into full songs. But typically, they are played alone as a three- or four-note melody so memorable, marketers hope, that they cut through the media clutter and lodge indelibly in consumers' brains." Examples of Sonic brand NBCs three tones, IBMs, Motorola- Hello Moto.
Sound as a Repellent
But sound can also be used to repel!--Kennedy subway station in Scarborough plays classical music to inhibit teens from hanging out in the station. A company in Wales several years ago invented a device called the Mosquito. It's a small speaker that emits a high frequency sound that only the young can hear. "The Music Mosquito is a complete music system that will relay Royalty free Classical or Chill-out music that would keep the teenagers away to some extent."
Products often have distinct sounds. Harley-Davidson's revving engine has been trademarked so when we hear that sound on the street or in a commercial it immediately cues-Harley! Cars often have quite distinct sounds. 36% of Japanese consumers claim to be able to distinguish one car brand from another, solely from its sound. The next time you see a commercial for a car, close your eyes and listen to how prominent each sound is. it's not just the sound effects that you will hear, it's often each specific sound from the opening door, to the starting of the engine to the sound of windshield wipers.
Not as much research has been done in the area of touch, but touch has an effect on sales and sales interactions. If a product looks appealing and we pick it up, we form an attachment with it. If it feels good, we will have a psychological sense of ownership.
Think for a minute about the Apple store. What do you see as soon as you walk in? People everywhere picking up, trying, touching and interacting with the products.
Textures are associated with product quality e.g. silk-luxury. Gender difference -usually women associated with light or delicate, men coarse
Lawrence Williams and Joshua Ackerman in the Harvard Review talk about a study where researchers asked people to hold either a cold or warm therapeutic pad. The people believed that the researchers were studying the product. However, what was really being studied was people's behavior following in an unrelated investment decision. People who had held the warm pad invested 43% more compared to those who had held the cold pad, The warmth made people warmer to what followed. In another study people given either a hard chair or a soft chair tp sit in while negotiating the price of a new car. They people in the hard chairs were not more negative, but they did negotiate less. They stuck to their positions more offering 28% less. They were much tougher. The suggestion is that the softer more comfortable seat made the people more susceptible to persuasion. (Please Touch the Merchandise)
|EXPOSURE||An initial stage of perception where some sensations come within range of sensory receptors|
|PSYCHOPHYSICS||The science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into the consumer's subjective experience|
Nneuromarketing intends to give even
more power over our minds to advertisers. Neuromarketers use
techniques like magnetic resonance imaging, to portray what is
going on in people's brains when they react to a product.
|ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD||The minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel (e.g. ad copy may be brilliant but if on a sign that can't be seen it's wasted)|
|DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD||The ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences among stimuli (=JND)|
|JND: Just Noticeable Difference||The minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected by a perceiver|
|WEBER'S LAW||The principle that the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater its change must be for it to be noticed|
JND is very important to marketers; A marketer may want a consumer to notice a discount, or may not want consumer to notice a difference.
Weber's Law found that the amount of change necessary to be noticed is related to the intensity of the stimulus. For example if you were carrying ten pounds and added one pound you may notice the difference; but if you were carrying 100 lbs and added 1, you would not notice the difference.
The ratio is what is important not the absolute difference.
When would a marketer not want you to notice difference in product?
When they are giving you less product in the same box or package? When they have brand loyal consumers and they want to change something?
When would a marketer want you to notice difference in product?
A sale? When the brand has had bad press and they need change?
Generally for a consumer to notice a price difference it is discounted 20%
When P&G introduced it's new thinner, more absorbent diaper in late 2009 before an advertising campaign to support it, some consumers noticed the change in the diaper and thought it was cheaper, thinner, stiff and papery leading them to create a facebook page complaining. Rushing the product to market, the company shipped the new product in the old packaging. Even though the product is reportedly much more absorbent and environmentally friendly, consumers didn't know or see that. Read the story about managing change here http://adage.com/article?article_id=141552
See examples of JND at Mouse Print http://www.mouseprint.org/2009/12/14/downsized-products-2009-part-2/ and watch this explanation of Weber's Law below
Noticeable Difference (inside link) to
see an illustration
Presidential 2000 "RATS" ad (outside link)
Dr. Wilson Bryan Key sees sex
In 1957 market researcher James M. Vicary unveiled a new secret advertising weapon that he hoped would increase sales. Based on the theory of subliminal advertising, he created what he called an "invisible commercial" to reach the audience "below the threshold of sensation or awareness" and prompt them to purchase the advertised product. Vicary reported that he had tested his "invisible commercial" with a film interlaced with flashing, too-brief-to-be-seen Coca-Cola and popcorn messages in a New Jersey movie theatre. The audience could not detect the messages because they were so rapid up to 1/3000 of a second. Vicary reported that the messages increased popcorn sales by 57.5% and Coca-Cola sales by 18.1%.
BUT IS IT TRUE?
For every great idea, there are A Few Doubting Thomases. Psychologists Timothy Moore, Anthony Greenwald and Sean Draine have all individually reviewed evidence surrounding commercial subliminal marketing tactics and have come to similar conclusions. They have not found any evidence with any brands tested for a replicable perception effect, much less a lasting effect on behavior. "What about the James Vicary experiment in 1957?" you ask. Well, Vicary lied. When he was challenged to repeat the test, he could produce no significant increase in Coca-Cola or popcorn sales. Eventually he confessed that he had not even conducted the subliminal experiment at the theatre and he had perpretrated the hoax to gain attention to his failing marketing business.
Just because something isn't true, doesn't mean it won't be reported widely. Vance Packard's "The Hidden Persuaders" in 1957 reported on Vicary's experiment and in 1973 the book "Subliminal Seduction" made claims that the technique was in wide use in the advertising industry. Dr. Wilson Bryan Key in his book "The Clam-Plate Orgy and Other Subliminals the Media use to Manipulate Your Behavior" saw sex in just about everything even Ritz crackers.
Does it ever work?
Watch this demonstration of Subliminal Persuasion. Do you think this is real, or faked?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQXe1CokWqQ Derren Brown - Subliminal Advertising
|Attention||The cognitive process whereby processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus- selectively concentrating on one thing and ignoring other things|
attending to only to a small part of the stimuli we are exposed to. If we are hungry, we may notice food.
Watch this commercial with their description: "Just how attention stealing is the new ŠKODA Fabia? We put it to the test. Will a crowd gather? Will other drivers slam on the breaks? Watch to find out. "
|Adaptation||Adaptation happens when a sensation becomes so familiar that it is no longer the focus of attention Habituation is a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations|
I. PERSONAL SELECTION FACTORS
For a humourous example of Perception, Interpretation and Filtering -this one's a little old but still funny-see "Why did the Chicken Cross The Road?" (inside link) a list of suggested answers to the question by famous people.
What new ways are marketers trying to get you to stay tuned to a certain show or station? How can they get you to stop from zapping the commercials?
FCUK depends on the shock
value of their name
To Read an article on How American family values campaigners are getting the brand out of stores see, FCUK versus American Family Values (inside link)
View my video:
In class we will investigate QR Codes
For more see:
The Key to Media's Hidden Codes
|Interpretation||the process where meaning is assigned to stimuli ( two people may see event differently)|
|Schema||an organized collection of beliefs and feelings represented in a cognitive category (Brand name may have meaning. Example:product called Bulldog|
|Priming||process by which certain properties of stimulus are more likely to evoke a schema|
school of thought that says people get meaning from the whole of a set of stimuli rather than any individual stimulus. Seeing the "whole"
Even More Gestalt ads by Karen
the gestalt principle that person tends to perceive an incomplete picture as complete. Example: -----------a dashed line is still a line; also completing a sound bite: Just ____ ____!; ZOOM, ZOOM__________.
The gestalt principle where one part of configuration dominates while rest is in background.
Example 1: is it two faces or vase? Figure is dominant. Ground is background ---Example 2: Notice the arrow in the FedEx logo
See some great examples of Gestalt here 20 Best Logos with Hidden Meanings
Gestalt principle where person groups objects together; an integrated whole; birds of a feather; Green Giant products use green; MacDonald's colours? Here do we see rows or columns?
We determine what something means to us; we all have baggage of experience, or hope or desire. ( Example end of sport event is determined by one play. You decide what you see based on your bias for your team.
Can you think of ads that can be viewed differently?
Semiotics examines the correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning
Every product has three components: Object (the product- Canadian Beer);the Sign- the sensory imagery representing intended meaning- Joe the Canadian); the Interpretant the true meaning derived- The Canadian Identity)
1. The object: Molson Canadian
2. The sign: Joe the Canadian
3. Interpretant the true meaning derived-
"The old ball-and-chain" is a phrase that many North Americans are familiar with. Oftentimes we imagine it spilling forth from the lips of some distressed, fatigued, overworked man who is with his nagging wife. It is this image that the advertisers for Southern Comfort are trying to reproduce. They want the person looking at the ad to sympathize with the man in the image, the man dragging his imaginary "ball-and-chain". We associate the ball and chain with oppression, hard labor, and unfairness. These connotations are probably derived from the images that we have seen in old prison movies where the convicts are forced to work the fields, shackled by a ball and chain.
|Perceptual positioning||Stimulus is interpreted from what we know about product category; also from characteristics of brand. These can be brand features,qualities or price; but also related to the product or brand's image or market position. It's what we think the products means or says.|
|Positioning strategy||The place a brand occupies in the consumer's mind with regard to important attributes and competitive offerings Dimensions: Price leader, attributes, product class (category); occasions; users; quality|
Review Gestalt and Semiotics in this Slideshare
References as noted above and: Solomon, Michael R., Zaichkowsky, Judith and Rosemary Polegato. Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having, Being. Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada
Information on this site is for use of the students of this course. For copyright information of the linked sites please see the respective authors.