Learning & Memory
What is learning? ...... Is learning always purposeful? ...... Can we learn just by being there?
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience
This week we will talk about 2 broad categories of learning. The first is Behavioural which relates to experience and behaviour and the second is Cognitive which relates to our information processing and cognitive factors that influence us
1. Classical Conditioning (also known as Pavlovian)
Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning
Learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response, but will cause a similar response when paired over time with the first stimulus
Conditioning Product Associations- music, humour, imagery can affect conditioning; slow music in grocery store no effect, but slow music in restaurant increased drinking; generally unconditioned stimulus should be presented before conditioned
Classical conditioning happens because of the pairing. It is a reflex, and animal and human will be conditioned. It's not a matter of choice!
First demonstrated by Pavlov and his dogs. Food (Unconditioned Stimulus)cause a dog to salivate (R: Response). When Light or bell (Conditioned Stimulus) is paired with Food (US) light or bell begins to elicit salivation (CR: conditioned Response)
For a good explanation of classical conditioning see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5lCleK-PM
These types of responses are automatic ( mouth watering, eye blink) When paired with hunger, thirst or arousal a product can elicit a response. Even a credit card becomes a conditioned cue to trigger spending
See the Little Albert experiment by John Watson http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxKfpKQzow8
*SHOW in class-The Office Pavlov Experiment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9i2rlymfLbE
The Making of the Think Different campaign
Read a 2011 article written by one of the original ad men who pitched the Think Different campaign to Steve Jobs. The Real Story Behind Apple's Think Different Campaign
See HEAD ON! to the right
Piggybacking (Type of Stimulus Generalization)
- But what happens when you can't get that song or jingle out of your head? Well then you have an "earworm". " Earworm" is the term coined by University of Cincinnati marketing professor James Kellaris for the usually unwelcome songs that get stuck in people's heads. For marketers, earworms can be a "double-edged sword," helpful if consumers look upon a memorable jingle favorably but with the potential to breed negativity toward a brand if the stuck song is viewed as annoying or unwelcome, said Larry Compeau, a marketing professor at Clarkson University and executive officer of the Society for Consumer Psychology." " I think the trick with earworms or with any kind of piece of music in advertising is to make sure the music is going to trigger the kinds of emotions or feelings you want the consumer to experience," To read more see, Earworm-It's Stuck! (inside link)
2. INSTRUMENTAL/OPERANT CONDITIONING Applications
Where classical conditioned responses are involuntary and simple; instrumental conditioning is deliberate to attain a goal and maybe more complex; instrumental/Operant conditioning is the result of reward that follows the desired behaviour; consumers choose products that make them feel good and satisfy a need through positive reinforcement (a compliment on clothing or scent), negative reinforcement (ad showing person at home because of odour, breath or clothing choice) and punishment (where we learn to do something to avoid -ridicule by friends for wearing something)
Punishment? Nike Puddles
Schedules of Reinforcement
a time or interval when behaviour is reinforced
|Fixed Interval Reinforcement||Reinforcement after a specific time period. Regularly, The first response brings reward. Result- people respond slowly but speed up at next reinforcement. Examples: The first and last day of sale may be busy. Consider the supermarket on pay day at the end of the month|
|Variable-Interval Reinforcement||Variable interval time passes before reinforcement varies around an average. Response is more consistent. The consumer doesn't know when reinforcement will occur. Example: Secret shoppers are are paid to go into stores and act like customers. The idea is that the sales people will not know when these people may come in. This results in more consistent behaviour by sales staff who are always on alert. They must be nice no matter how nasty the shopper is!||
|Fixed Ratio Reinforcement||
Reinforcement after fixed responses; frequent buyer programs: Optimum, Air Miles. Many people drive out of their way to get points so they can get to the reward level. At the same time point card track a consumer's behaviour and the marketer learns more and more about the consumer.
|Variable Ratio Reinforcement||Person reinforced after certain number of response but person does not know number, Response rate high and behaviour is difficult to extinguish; slot machines; lottery-Everbody knows a friend of a friend who won|
Is learning Conscious?
Behaviourists focus on behaviour and only actions; whereas, cognitive theorists look to cognitive factors, expectations. Cognitive theorist disagree with behaviourist who believe that everything we learn is strictly based on experience. Cognitive theorists believe that our mental processes play a large part in what we learn and how we learn.
|Cognitive Learning Theory||this theory assumes that learning takes place as the result of internal mental processes; people use information from the world around them to master environment and solve problems ( creativity and insight) It implies that we have choice in our actions.|
Observational learning is the process where we learn by watching or observing (vicarious) the actions of others and noticing the reinforcements they receive (Bandura and Bobo doll see video)
How does observation work in advertising?
Consider a commercial where the person has a problem. Say the person has bad breath and he/she is going on an important date. We watch this commercial and we see what happens. When the person in the ad uses a certain product and the person's breath is nice and he/she has a happy date experience, we as the observers learn that "product X" can save us from a bad date experience. The hero of the ad is the product. We learn this not through our behaviour, but by watching and observing the behaviour of another-observational also know as vicarious learning.
Vicarious learning means marketers do not need to reward consumers; they show what happens to desirable models ( man wears Axe has beautiful women around; man who has "the car" gets "the woman", male who drinks the beer gets....)
Modeling is the process of imitating the behaviour of others. In the example above while we watched the commercial we learned how a product can save us. Now how do we put that in action? We may model the behaviour we saw.
Four conditions needed-Attention- Retention-Production-Motivation
APPLICATIONS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING PRINCIPLES
THE ROLE OF MEMORY IN LEARNING
|Memory||Memory is the process of encoding information and stored and retrieved when needed; contemporary approach is an information-processing approach|
|Encoding||Encoding is the process where information from short-term memory is entered into long term memory ; information associated with previous information more easily retained|
|Storage||Creating a more permanent record-the process when knowledge enters long term memory- it can be integrated with current memory and stored until it's needed|
|Retrieval||- recall and recollection- the process where the desired information is accessed from long term memory|
|Activation models of memory||approaches to memory stressing different levels of processing that occurs to activate certain aspects of memory|
|Knowledge Structures||organized systems of concepts relating to brands, stores and other concepts; a complex web filled with bits of data|
|Evoked Set||those products already in memory plus those prominent in the retail environment actively considered during a consumer choice process|
|Schema||an organized collection of beliefs and feelings represented in a cognitive category- we have scripts- walk into store, there is a routine; a how to set up and predetermined|
Retrieval of Information for Purchase Decisions
- People have vast set of knowledge stored, but the right cue may be necessary to retrieve it
- Physiological factors-older adult remembers old days clearly
- Situational factors-totally new thing may be remembered better-- the pioneer brand-a descriptive brand name Mighty Wipes- viewing environment also affects- stop and go of talk show or baseball game shows lower recall of ad versus a continuous viewing environment such as story, movie, drama; ad at beginning of sequence remembered best- primacy effect
- State dependent retrieval- if you are in same state as when first exposed recall is better
- Familiarity enhances recall-maintaining awareness
- Novelty increases recall
FACTORS INFLUENCING FORGETTING
when newly learned information displaces earlier information -results in memory loss for the item learned previously
Coke vs Pepsi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TvL9p-gzJBI
|Retroactive Interference||stimulus response associations forgotten if consumers learn new responses to same or similar stimuli|
|Proactive Interference||Prior learning that interferes with new learning; example: a prior course learned may interfere with a similar course you are taking now|
PRODUCTS AS MEMORY MARKER Product or ad can evoke memory, nostalgia for past; a song from past linked to new item.
campaign, marketer can peak consumer interest for
potential customers to pay attention to new campaign. The 2003
that showed billboards with cute little pigs throughout the
city attracted attention but also was introduced to attract
Asian market of early adopters who might recognize the piglets
as characters McMug and McDull -to read
more see the Strategy
McMug & McDull article(inside
Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli
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