What is learning?
...... Is learning always purposeful? ...... Can we learn just by being there?
is a relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience
We can learn just be being there. Learning can be vicarious
(by observing only); accidental, casual or unintentional
Learning is an ongoing
process under constant revision
Example: How many jingles
can you sing for products you would never use?
Learning involves a wide
range; associations between product and logo, association between product
song, etc. The pairing of song and brand and image and brand builds our concept of the brand. We come to understand a brand a a set of ideas that make up the brand's personality.
This week we will talk about 2 broad categories of learning. The first is Behavioural which relates to experience and behaviour and the second is Cognitive which relates to our information processing and cognitive factors that influence us
THEORIES (Classical vs Operant)
Behavioural ( Skinner,
Watson) theories assume that learning is the result of responses to outside
events- Conditioning -Classical (also called Pavlovian) and Instrumental
(also called Operant)
1. Classical Conditioning (also known as Pavlovian)
Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning
Learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a
response is paired with another stimulus that
initially does not elicit a response,
but will cause a similar response when paired over time with the first stimulus
Associations- music, humour, imagery can affect conditioning; slow music
in grocery store no effect, but slow music in restaurant increased drinking;
generally unconditioned stimulus should be presented before conditioned
Classical conditioning happens because of the pairing. It is a reflex, and animal and human will be conditioned. It's not a matter of choice!
First demonstrated by
Pavlov and his dogs. Food (Unconditioned Stimulus)cause a dog to salivate
(R: Response). When Light or bell (Conditioned Stimulus) is paired with Food
(US) light or bell begins to elicit salivation (CR: conditioned Response)
These types of responses
are automatic ( mouth watering, eye blink) When paired with hunger, thirst
or arousal a product can elicit a response. Even a credit card becomes a
conditioned cue to trigger spending
Conditioning is more likely after conditioned stimulus is
paired repeatedly with the unconditioned stimulus; repetition- repeating
slogan, repeated pairing
must ensure consumer exposed enough times to make it stick and avoid advertising
wearout; to avoid wearout advertisers vary message; a pool of ads
The process where a learned connection between a stimulus
and response wears out so that the response is no longer reinforced; can
occur when product overexposed or not exposed any more.
The process that occurs when the behaviour caused by a reaction
to one stimulus occurs in the presence of other similar stimuli. A knock-off brand works because of stimulus generalization. (see piggybacking)
Applications of Stimulus
Generalization: 80% of new products are extensions of existing product
or brands: family Branding-GE, Campbell's; Product line extensions-
fruit to fruit juice; Licensing-well known name rented, MacDonald name on
product, Harley Davidson; look-alike
Apple Eddie Bauer and Ford
Piggybacking (Type of Stimulus Generalization)
A brand packaged like a name brand may induce a purchase. If the person tries the "knock-off" brand and likes it, they may continued to buy the lower priced product; danger is if copy product is inferior it may drive consumer to original. Most brands guard their trademarked products.
According to an Oct 2009 article in Media Post, 70% of consumers say they purchased the wrong product in the supermarket in the previous year. 60% said they had trouble differentiating the products because of packaging. They found the most confused categories are canned goods, cold and allergy and hair care items. Copycat packaging tends to be the biggest factor.
Hiding a product's origin: DeWalt
is Black & Decker. Black & Decker is for home handyperson, DeWalt for more professional
The Dewalt Drill below is more expensive, powerful and has a three year warranty. The Black & Decker Drill is less expensive, less powerful and only has a shorter warranty.
Lexus also makes Toyota
Rickard's Red beer which says is brewed at the Capilano Brewing company is actually not an independent brand but brewed by Molson. There is no Capilano Brewing Company.
The process that occurs when behaviour caused by two stimuli
is different, when consumers begin to differentiate a brand from competitors.
A comparison ad to right "It's like GQ with a higher IQ" Esquire
Hear and see a classic example:
Teach the World- can't beat the Real thing
Applications of Stimulus
Discrimination: reminder by advertiser "Ask
for them by name"
"Don't settle for imitation" Comparison advertisng--Heinz--there
is no other kinds- slow ketchup; also "It's the Real Thing" (Coca Cola suggests they are the real thing, Pepsi not)
Brand name can become public domain: aspirin,
But what happens when
you can't get that song or jingle out of your head? Well then you have
an "earworm". " Earworm" is the term
coined by University of Cincinnati marketing professor James Kellaris for
usually unwelcome songs that get stuck in people's heads. For marketers,
earworms can be a "double-edged sword," helpful if consumers
look upon a memorable jingle favorably but with the potential to breed
negativity toward a brand if the stuck song is viewed as annoying or unwelcome,
said Larry Compeau, a marketing professor at Clarkson University and executive
officer of the Society for Consumer Psychology." " I think the trick with earworms or with any kind of piece
of music in advertising is to make sure the music is going to trigger
the kinds of emotions or feelings you want the consumer to experience," To read more see, Earworm-It's
Stuck! (inside link)
The process where an individual learns to perform behaviours
that produce positive outcomes and avoid those that yield negative outcomes;
associated with BF Skinner
This differs from classical/Pavlovian conditioning in that Classical conditioning happens through reflex and the person is affected without doing anything. With instrumental the person or animal must take an action that has a consequence for the conditioning to occur. Think of instrumental as being active.
See BF Skinner video
The process where rewards provided by the environment strengthen
responses to stimuli
is rewarded or punished for a purchase decision instrumental conditioning
is at work.
A simple thank you can be reinforcement.
If we buy a candy bar and it tastes good that is reinforcing. If it tastes bad we will not likely buy it again. A good product experience reinforces repeat buying.
A card that gives you points encourages spending. A rebate encourage you to think positively of the product when you get your reward. An affinity card is good for company for the database
of usage to understand customer usage and focus ads.
The process where the environment weakens responses to stimuli
so that inappropriate behaviour is avoided. Negative reinforcement occurs when something already present is removed as a result of a behaviour and the behaviour that led to this removal increases in the future because it created a favourable outcome.
Consider people in commercials for gum that freshens breath. The person may be going on an important date but has a bad time because of bad breath; next time the person chews the gum and of course everything on the date is wonderful.The bad breath is removed because of the behaviour, thus in future the person will chew the gum.
If you have a headache and take Tylenol and it takes your headache away, the relief reinforces you to take Tylenol in the future.
Punishment is the learning that occurs when a response is followed by unpleasant events. If punishment works, the unpleasant consequence will be avoided in the future. The goal is to stop or moderate a behaviour.
Example, a child misbehaves so the parent takes away video games. The misbehaviour stops.
But how does it work in consumer behaviour? Consider ads showing frightening images to discourage smoking. Are they trying to stop you from doing something?
In the ad below Toyota Girlfriend, the girlfriend wants to punish her boyfriend who spends too much time in his truck. But watch how the tables are turned. Who is punished in the end?
Rewarding of successive approximations of the desired behaviour;
Behaviour can be shaped:
try it on, test drive it try a "free sample" or use a coupon to get money off a product purchase,
get a prize for coming into store; free food at Costco.
Shaping is what BF Skinner did to encourage animal to press a lever. He reinforced the animal when it was close to the actual behaviour to encourage pressing it. Think of this when you are given a free sample.
Where classical conditioned
responses are involuntary and simple; instrumental conditioning
to attain a goal and maybe more complex; instrumental/Operant conditioning
is the result of reward that follows the desired behaviour;
products that make them feel good and satisfy a need through positive reinforcement
(a compliment on clothing or scent), negative reinforcement (ad showing
at home because of odour, breath or clothing choice) and punishment (where
we learn to do something to avoid -ridicule by friends for wearing something)
Punishment? Nike Puddles
Schedules of Reinforcement
A time or interval when behaviour is reinforced
Fixed Interval Reinforcement
Reinforcement after a specific time period. Regularly, The first response brings reward. Result-
people respond slowly but speed up at next reinforcement.
Examples: The first and last day of sale may be busy. Consider the supermarket on pay day at the end of the month
Variable interval time passes before reinforcement varies around an average.
Response is more consistent. The consumer doesn't know when reinforcement will occur. Example: Secret shoppers are are paid to go into stores and act like customers. The idea is that the sales people will not know when these people may come in. This results in more consistent behaviour by sales staff who are always on alert. They must be nice no matter how nasty the shopper is!
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement
Reinforcement after fixed responses; frequent buyer programs:
Optimum, Air Miles. Many people drive out of their way to get points so they can get to the reward level. At the same time point card track a consumer's behaviour and the marketer learns more and more about the consumer.
Variable Ratio Reinforcement
Person reinforced after certain number of response but person
does not know number, Response rate high and behaviour is difficult to
slot machines; lottery-Everbody knows a friend of a friend who won
COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY
Is learning Conscious?
Behaviourists focus on
behaviour and only actions; whereas, cognitive theorists look to cognitive
factors, expectations. Cognitive theorist disagree with behaviourist who believe that everything we learn is strictly based on experience. Cognitive theorists believe that our mental processes play a large part in what we learn and how we learn.
Cognitive Learning Theory
this theory assumes that learning takes
place as the result of internal mental processes; people use information
from the world around them to master environment and solve problems ( creativity
and insight) It implies that we have choice in our actions.
Observational learning is the process where we learn by watching or observing (vicarious)
the actions of others and noticing the reinforcements they receive (Bandura
and Bobo doll see video)
How does observation work in advertising?
Consider a commercial where the person has a problem. Say the person has bad breath and he/she is going on an important date. We watch this commercial and we see what happens. When the person in the ad uses a certain product and the person's breath is nice and he/she has a happy date experience, we as the observers learn that "product X" can save us from a bad date experience. The hero of the ad is the product. We learn this not through our behaviour, but by watching and observing the behaviour of another-observational also know as vicarious learning.
means marketers do not need to reward consumers; they show what happens
models ( man wears Axe has beautiful women around; man who has "the car"
gets "the woman", male who drinks the beer gets....)
Modeling is the process of imitating the behaviour of others. In the example above while we watched the commercial we learned how a product can save us. Now how do we put that in action? We may model the behaviour we saw.
conditions needed-Attention- Retention-Production-Motivation
Attention must be directed to appropriate model to follow;
Consumer must Remember the action- what's said or done;
Consumer must be able to Convert
this to action;
Consumer must be Motivated to copy the act
APPLICATIONS OF COGNITIVE
means marketers do not need to reward consumers; they show what happens
models ( man wears pAxe has beautiful women around; man who has "the car"
gets "the woman", male who drinks the beer gets....)
THE ROLE OF MEMORY IN
Memory is the process of encoding information and stored and retrieved when needed; contemporary approach is an information-processing
Encoding is the process where information from short-term
memory is entered into long term memory ; information associated
with previous information more easily retained
Creating a more permanent record-the process when knowledge enters long term
memory- it can be integrated with current memory and stored until
- recall and recollection- the process where the desired information is accessed from long
Short term memory is like ram in a computer. When we turn off the computer the ram memory disappears. To get something into Long Term Memory, we must attach meaning to it, use it be involved with the concept.
We may wonder why a marketer repeats messages over and over if we are not interested in the product. We may not be interested now, but we may be in the future. If we suddenly have need of a product that we had never needed before, the marketing message may occur to us. We may remember a product name. Just be being familiar with a name we may choose it. This is called the "mere exposure effect."
Marketer counts on prior
experience and memory to kick in at time of purchase
Marketer can distort
consumer's recall of product experience by messages exposed to
Consumer may process
a stimulus by sensory memory: colour, shape, picture or through abstract semantic
meaning-what the product says about you
Memory can be episodic- through
a story real or played out
memory permits storage for a couple of seconds; if it is attended to it
goes to short term
memory; short term memory is like RAM in computer; chunking of
information helps retention; long term memory requires elaborative rehearsal-thinking
about subject and relating it to other information- marketer uses phrases
that consumer repeats and retains-example of chunking-
Social insurance # 444 555 8956 (remembered in sets of 3 or 4)
approaches to memory stressing different levels of
processing that occurs to activate certain aspects of memory
organized systems of concepts relating to brands, stores and
other concepts; a complex web filled with bits of data
those products already in memory plus those prominent
in the retail environment actively considered during a consumer choice process
an organized collection of beliefs and feelings represented
in a cognitive category- we have scripts- walk into store, there is a routine;
a how to set up and predetermined
Retrieval of Information
for Purchase Decisions
People have vast set
of knowledge stored, but the right cue may be necessary to retrieve it
adult remembers old days clearly
new thing may be remembered better-- the pioneer brand-a descriptive brand
name Mighty Wipes- viewing environment also affects- stop and go of talk show
or baseball game shows lower recall of ad versus a continuous viewing environment
such as story, movie, drama; ad at beginning of sequence remembered best-
if you are in same state as when first exposed recall is better
Novelty increases recall
FACTORS INFLUENCING FORGETTING
when newly learned information displaces earlier
information -results in memory loss for the item learned previously
stimulus response associations forgotten if consumers learn new responses to same or similar stimuli
Prior learning that interferes with new learning; example:
a prior course learned may interfere with a similar course you are taking
if ads are viewed with similar brands, or if competitor is mentioned confusion
PRODUCTS AS MEMORY MARKER Product or ad can evoke
memory, nostalgia for past; a song from past linked to new item.
campaign, marketer can peak consumer interest for
potential customers to pay attention to new campaign. The 2003
that showed billboards with cute little pigs throughout the
city attracted attention but also was introduced to attract
Asian market of early adopters who might recognize the piglets
as characters McMug and McDull -to read
more see theStrategy
McMug & McDull article(inside
Marketer taps into emotion
of consumer- Nostalgia- PT Cruiser, Volkswagen Beetle
Start me Up for Windows
95- reissues of old packages- old + new
Measuring Memory for
In one study fewer than
40% of TV viewers made positive links between commercial messages and
only 7% can recall product or company featured in most recent commercial
seen; a decrease over the years Why?
free recall tests consumer must say product seen; in recognition consumer
shown products and asked which they saw
STARCH TEST- scores consumers
on categories: noted, associated, read most, seen, read some; size of ad,
placement determine attention
Problems with measure
of memory-response bias ( consumer tends to answer yes more than no, or is
eager to please); memory lapse; how do you measure a feeling evoked by ad?-
also recall does not necessarily mean purchase
References noted above and : Solomon, Michael R., Zaichkowsky, Judith and Rosemary Polegato. Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having, Being. Fifth Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada