Motivation and Values
Are the forces that drive people to buy products always straightforward?
Can an emotional response elicit a purchase?
Does a person's values determine her/his choice of product?
To understand motivation is to understand WHY consumers do what they do.
Matt Foley Motivational Speaker
In everyday language, motivation is the characteristic that helps us achieve our goals. It drives us towards something. It gives us a kind of energy and strength to do something or get something.
THE MOTIVATION PROCESS
an internal state that activates or arouses goal-oriented behaviour; a need is aroused that drives person to satisfy it; motivation can be described by- It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal (includes STRENGTH and DIRECTION)
Goal: a consumer's desired end state; end state reduces tension and leads to homeostasis
Drive: the desire to satisfy a biological need in order to reduce physiological arousal
ocuses on biological and psychological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal, we are motivated to reduce the tension. (a growling stomach says feed me!) Doesn't explain why some seek to increase tension.
See Reebok Terry Tate Office Linebacker improving employee motivation https://youtu.be/Kg5cdZ-Fnpc
Homeostasis: the state of being where the body is in physiological balance; goal-oriented behaviour attempts to reduce or eliminate an unpleasant motivational state and return to a balanced one
the perspective that behaviour is largely "pulled" by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes, or positive incentives, rather than "pushed" from within
Nike Motivation Colin Kaepernick
MOTIVATIONAL Strength and Direction
- Motives have both STRENGTH and DIRECTION
- Needs versus Wants: A want is the way a need is satisfied. How a need is satisfied depends on a person's own history, experiences and cultural environment.
Two people may be hungry. They both have a need. How each satisfies the need may be different. One person wanst a Big Mac and the other wants a healthy salad.
Biogenic versus Psychogenic Needs:
Biogenic needs-food, water, air, shelter;
Psychogenic needs-status, power, affiliation; psychogenic reflect culture
Utilitarian Needs (practical) versus Hedonic needs: subjective, experiential, exciting
- A goal has valance--it can be positive or negative; consumer seeks positive or avoids a negative- example using deodorant and mouthwash to avoid negative
- different motives may conflict
TYPES OF CONFLICTS
1. Approach- Approach Conflict: Person has two positive choices- example -go to special sporting event or go out with dream date. Both are good. If you could only choose one, which would you choose?
2. Approach- Avoidance Conflict: choice is both positive and negative--a fur coat luxurious and warm but it's fur, maybe you are against using animals this way.
The use of Social Media can be seen as an approach-avoidance conflict. Social media sites like facebook, snapchat, instagram, and twitter are free. But what is the real cost? If a product or service is free maybe you are what is being sold...your data, your information, your privacy, etc.
3. Avoidance- Avoidance Conflict: two negative alternatives- Example: put more money into used car that is a lemon or buy another used car
Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously. The "ideas" or "cognitions" in question may include attitudes and beliefs, the awareness of one's behavior, and facts. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or by justifying or rationalizing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. (wikipedia)
People have need for order and consistency; tension must be reduced; consumer convinces self after purchase they made smart choice- we read material favourable to chosen product and ignore unfavorable information
Classifying Consumer Needs
1. Henry Murray's set of Needs:
Biogenic: food, water, air, sleep,sex, shelter
Psychogenic: dominance, superiority, emotional stability, achievement, compliance, order, autonomy, affiliation, analysis, dependence, self-depreciation, exhibition, assistance, change, endurance, aggression, dependence, play
Murray's needs structure is basis of some personality tests TAT (Thematic Apperception Technique)-subjects shown ambiguous picture and asked to write about it-content is analyzed according to needs mentioned
Murray believed that everyone has same basic needs but differs in priority ranking of needs
Specific Needs and Buying Behaviour
Need for Achievement (products that say success)
Need for Affiliation (products that show need to be in company of others)
Need for Power (products that show control over environment)
Need for Uniqueness (products that assert individual identity)
Bud Light Motivation Skydivers
2. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
example:"Be all you can be" Army
(hobbies, education, travel, lottery winner)
Be All You can Be 1994 Army http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDbNtFL2TUI
2nd From Top
EGO NEEDS Esteem:
prestige, status (cars, furniture, credit cards)
Rolls Royce and Grey Poupon http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NmannAYiwh0
"You're in the Pepsi Generation" (clothing,cosmetics, clubs, drinks)
Michael Jackson Pepsi Generation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=po0jY4WvCIc
(Insurance, alarm system, investments) "You're in good hands" -Tire Company puts baby in Tire
Michelin Baby http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SdPLf3FoInE
water, sleep, food, medicine,needed items, generics)
Anacin commercial 60s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeas5jtffpM
Key Points about Maslow's Pyramid
- One moves up the pyramid; satisfied needs don't motivate
- Is Maslow's hierarchy applicable to all cultures?
- see some Demotivational Posters at http://k3hamilton.com/ob/obdemotiv.html
Examples of Motivational Campaigns
US Airforce Motivation
Consumer Involvement (We will be talking a lot about INVOLVEMENT throughout the course!)
What is Involvement?
a person's Involvement depends on the importance of an object based on inherent needs, values and interests; involvement is triggered by person factors, object factors or situational factors
examples of involvement- children- what things do kids love?- toys. games, candy; we could say these are high involvement items for kids
Levels of Involvement : from simple processing to elaboration
Inertia: process where purchase made because of habit; motivation lacking to consider other alternatives
Types of involvement: Cognitive-need to learn all about it; Affective- emotional
See the video on this link on How a great Sale Affects Your Brain
Strategies to increase involvement
What examples can you give that show each of the above?
Value: an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct
Core Values: each culture has set of values shared to members; cultures values change over time
Value system: a culture's ranking of the relative importance of values
Enculturation: the process of learning beliefs and behaviours endorsed by one's native culture
Acculturation: process of learning beliefs and behaviours endorsed by another culture
Consider how enculturation and acculturation affect marketer's plans
To take an online Values and Lifestyles Survey click here; Business Intelligence: VALS Survey online (you must have cookies enabled on your computer to take the survey)
The survey intends to measure attitudes and interests and sorts people into the following categories: Innovators(Actualizers), Fulfilleds, Achievers, Experiencers, Believers, Strivers, Makers Survivors (Strugglers) . We will talk more about this when we cover Chapter 6.
To read an interesting article on the History of Motivational Research see Consuming Interest- Why people Buy Stuff
References as noted above and: Solomon, Michael R., Zaichkowsky, Judith and Rosemary Polegato. Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having, Being. Fifth Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada
Information on this site is for use of the students of this course. For copyright information of the linked sites please see the respective authors.