Personality & Lifestyles
Why would two people with the same job have completely different hobbies?
Why is one person a thrill seeker and the other a homebody?
Personality is unique to each individual. Our personality influences our responses to our environment. Personality can be defined as the qualities and traits, that define the character or behavior of a specific person.
From our own experience, we may see that others behave differently in different circumstances or around different people. Studies back up this idea. Because we see people in limited circumstances we tend to see consistency
Psychologists look at personality by looking at what traits people report or demonstrate, but also they look at the context of the behaviour.
Marketers want to understand personality so they can segment consumers as far as activities, tastes and lifestyles (psychographics)The better they understand the consumer the more accurate a marketing campaign could be.
What would Freud say about these ads?
Carl Jung believed in the collective unconscious (a storehouse of memories from ancestors) The shared memories invoke archetypes : these images appear frequently in marketing: mother earth, wise old man
Anima and animus
Nothing escapes the power of a Dirt Devil
Review this Slideshare for more examples
Archetypes Psychology of Consumer Behaviour from K3 Hamilton
Traits are the identifiable characteristics that define a person: example-extroversion versus introversion
Traits interesting to marketing are innovation, materialism, self-consciousness, need for recognition
Using trait theory in marketing has been problematic: researchers do not always agree on which traits to measure; many scales are not valid or reliable; tests often made for specific population; conditions of testing vary; instruments are under revision; many measure gross overall tendencies. Because the context or conditions of a behaviour is also important, it can be difficult to recreate situations as they really may be in the real world.
Marketers are concerned with their Brand Identity and what they want is brand equity. Brand equity refers to the extent to which a consumer holds a strong favourable and unique association with the brand
Personality dimensions to compare and contrast character of brand: old-fashioned, wholesome, traditional; surprising, with it; serious, intelligent, efficient; glamorous, romantic, sexy; rugged outdoorsy, tough, athletic
Creation and communication of a distinctive brand personality can make a product stand out;
Example: Think Different
Apple brands itself as "Unique", "Original", "Innovative" It's users are happy to brand themselves as different; thus the THINK Different campaign Click Apple TV ad to see stills of the original commercial or to see and hear it Click https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmwXdGm89Tk
Click here to assess Brand Personality
Two people can share similar demographic background (middle class,similar education, age, occupation, income) yet have very different psychographics and different buying or consuming practices; each person has a different lifestyle. Even twins who live together will have different life experiences.
In traditional societies consumption practices can be determined by class, family or village. Our world today is much more complex. We have millions of opportunities in the real world and in the online world. We can create our own social identity through the things we do and through our product choices.
By understanding lifestyle, marketers can separate people into groups by looking at the leisure behaviours they exhibit and by seeing how they spend disposable income. They can also see lifestyle by looking at online activities- who the person associates with, the groups they join, the social networks they belong to, the things they share, the things they "like"
Lifestyle defines who we are and who we are not. Lifestyle is not set in stone, it evolves through our lifetimes
Demographics allow marketer to describe who buys a product; whereas, psychographics allow marketer to understand why they buy a product
Forms of psychographic studies:
Psychographic research uses AIOs Activities-Interests-Opinions to group consumers
Consumers are given a large number of statements and asked to indicate how much they agree with each; result is how people spend time, interests, self view, world view and demographic information
Of course what people report about themselves may not be accurate, but what it may reflect is what a person would like to be like which is also relevant.(Recall the importance of the gap between the actual self and the ideal self. The greater the difference the more opportunity to appeal to fantasy.)
20/80 rule says about 20% of consumers in a product category account for 80% of sales. These 20% make up a brand loyal group.
Researchers try to determine who are heavy users, moderate users and light users
How is Psychographic segmentation used?
- To define target market -what general characteristics make up the target group-
- To create a new view of market -where is there opportunity
- To position the product - to define the characteristics of the product to fit a particular group
- To better communicate product attributes- to define the key qualities of the products
- To develop overall strategy- to define how (the tactics) to appeal to the consumer
- To market social and political issues
What measurements are used?
One measurement is called VALS (Values and Lifestyles-a psychographic segmentation system to categorize consumers into clusters)
Geodemography is analytical techniques that combine data on consumer expenditures and other socioeconomic factors with geographic information on areas people live-idea is birds of a feather flock together
Researchers now also look at single source data ( information that includes different aspects of consumption and demographic data for a common consumer segment
Emphasis on value of time saving products- consumer confidence up and down. North American are defined by possessions. Younger people are more diverse and socially conscious.
Movement toward a more laid-back lifestyle and casual work environment
In 2005 Piggly Wiggly a US grocery store introduced Biometric Buying- paying by fingerprint..It didn't last because the company that provided the technology went out of business)
Easier and easier to spend--Pay by mobile or app- some businesses are allowing augmented reality and mobile apps (QR codes) to connect to pay for goods or to take advantage of special deals. Tap and pay with smart phones.
Consumers are more and more in control of what they watch..it's about PULL not PUSH The consumer today is no longer a passive entity, the consumer is more and more involved
The rise of ad skipping functions embedded in emerging technologies such as digital personal video recorders (PVRs) and online streaming shows continue to fragment the market, as they say it threatens both the revenue and viability of TV broadcasters. In Britain some firms have experimented with paying people to view the commercials -see Pay to Watch
More On demand viewing and television shows watched online - example hulu.com/netflix
USER Generated Content - everyday people are posting more and more, youtube stars have followings and influenceand. Many marketers today are jumping on the bandwagon and using Crowdsourcing techniques to run contests where consumers are challenged to create ads. Instead of content only created by a marketer, today we see the consumer involved in the creation of the message. When Google purchased YouTube in Oct 2006, it was not because YouTube was profitable. Google bought the potential that YouTube offered through possible advertising revenue.
Reaching the Fragmented Market
Ubiquitous advertising-no space is safe.
Product placement as a replacement for traditional advertising has come of age. By 2005, the number of times a product made an appearance in television programming jumped 30 percent to 108, 261, according to Nielsen Media Research, which has been tracking the tactic for the last three years. Even though the practice is so popular, no quantitative studies have yet proven the effect of product integration. Consumers' and writers' groups have complained that the practice is turning prime-time shows into infomercials. Reality shows are often the worst offenders
Marketers are increasing using technology to "pull" consumers into their advertising.
With the rise of fragmentation, marketers are desperate to try new ways to attract an audience. In the 60's commercials were mostly 60 second spots then they moved to 30 second and by the late 80s -15 second spots arrived (they make up 36% of all TV ads today. But now some marketers are trying 10 or even five second spots or branding over top of shows
Behavioural technology continues to produce Targeted ads, your behaviour is tracked -what you click is used to send targeted ads to the pages that you view.
Databases are increasing being used to create Addressable advertising- advertising specifically for you- from the video screen at Tim Horton's to your TV screen and your computer screen -
Paid search- key words are sold by Search engines so that when you search a term those paid sites show up first in the list, or perhaps reroute you to another's page
The compass and GPS on smart phones are used by marketers in apps like Foursquare to allow users to check-in to locations to share information and receive coupons and bonuses. Augmented reality browsers allow marketers to post location relevant information
Mobile Advertising http://ca.youtube.com/watch?v=hAUorgUFGso
Trend Hunter Report 2017
2015- responsive retail-beacon transmitters; ritualized collaboration; competitive reward-gamification; everyday robotics; tiny indulgence; waste currency- reward for eco-conscious behaviour; social exclusivity; biometric capture-wearable technology; meta-marketing; swap commerce; chemical revolt; multisensory marketing and virtual reality; upscaled convenience; expanded luxury; tech paranoia; masculinity redefined; bespoke ecommerce-personalized products; practical printing; clairvoyant e-tail; routine rental.
2016- peer to peer luxury, reactive fashion and momentary marketing, millennial segmenting, branded cognition- experiential branding, appified retail and the digitized queue, viral oddity and intentional divergence, reality brandning and bodily esteem, winning at parenthood (perfect parents), streamlined feedback online, steminine play and the empowered girl, reactive fashion and techcessories, socialized reward, resource sharing and social good, peer-to-peer luxury, recognition purchasing, in store virtual reality and projection, crowsourced reward, momentary marketing, curated dining, retail community and experiential branding, matchmaking adulthood with big data, assisted entrepreneurship and automated creation.
2017- Embedded Virtual Reality, Analog Divergence, Artisnal Education, Communal Living, Sponsorship Gaming, Branded Education, Instagrammable Fitness, Shoppable Media, Suspended Adulthood, Designer Customization, Condensed Broadcast, Preferential Pop Ups, Detoxifying Libation, Boomer Peer-to-Peer, Prosumer Tourism, Extreme Wellness, Culinary Laboratory, Quantified Self-Care, Big Data Concierge, Retail Kinship.
See trendtv Tweetonomics- from tweeting shoes and tweet cakes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aV1BtcpZAPo or emotionology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hm14O6-XEwo
The Trend to social networking and more attempts to monetize it (Facebook turned 10 in 2014)
Greenwashing- term describing the deceptive use of green PR or green marketing to promote a misleading perception that a company's policies or products (goods or services) are environmentally friendly. The term green sheen is used to describe organizations attempting to show they are adopting practices beneficial to the environment. Greenwashing may be described as "spin."
See Funny or Die on Greenwashing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1o9xmAQn3I Everybody wants to be green http://ca.youtube.com/watch?v=6i-6-s_WjO0
See Projected Publicity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zAMXv66OoDo
Above noted References and : Solomon, Michael R., Zaichkowsky, Judith and Rosemary Polegato. Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having, Being. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada
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