What is an attitude? How are attitudes formed?
Is it possible to measure attitude change? Is it possible to change a consumer's attitude?
A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself) objects or issues
Attitude Object---- Ao
Anything towards which one has an attitude can be a physical object or an abstract idea
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE
The Functional Theory of Attitudes
According to psychologist Daniel Katz and his Functional Theory of Attitudes, attitudes facilitate social behaviour; they are functional for the person and are determined by a person's motives. Consumers can have different reasons for having the same attitude according to Katz:
Functional Theory of Attitudes
A pragmatic approach that focuses on how attitudes facilitate social behaviour; attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person: utilitarian, value expressive, ego-defensive,or knowledge function
We develop attitudes on things if they are pleasurable or painful. Example: chocolate tastes good;I like it.
A person forms a product attitude not because of its objective benefits, but what it says about him. Example: he drives a Jaguar, what does that say about him?
Attitudes formed to protect consumers from external/internal threat insecurities: example: deodorants
Knowledge FunctionAttitude because of need for order, structure or meaning-need is presents when person in ambiguous situation or with a new product. For example consumer learns about product from detailed description of product attributes or a recognizable source like Consumer Reports.
Attitudes can serve more than one function; marketer who understands dominant functions can tailor ads
Consumers demonstrate different levels of commitment to attitude objects; example sport fans: diehard fan, fair weather fans, social group attendee(-go for party)
Examples of Types of Functions:
Utilitarian..Cadbury Aliens--Pleasurable Cadbury
Ego Defensive Commercial
Jaguar Value Expressive Below
See a rather creepy Imodium commercial here Hot Tub
The ABC Model of Attitudes
ABC Model of attitudes: Affect (how you feel about attitude object), Behaviour (what you intend to do), Cognition (beliefs you have about object)
We can know a lot about a product but not have a feeling about it
Hierarchy of Effectsexplains the impact of three components (affect, behaviour, cognition)
Hierarchy of Effects:
A fixed sequence of steps that occurs during attitude formation;this sequence varies depending upon such factors as the consumer's level of involvement with the attitude object
HIGH INVOLVEMENT HIERARCHY
Consumer accumulates knowledge of a product and forms beliefs; consumer evaluates beliefs and forms a feeling; consumer buys product
This careful choice process often creates brand-loyal-consumer "bonds" with product
LOW INVOLVMENT HIERARCHY
Consumer does not have strong preference for brand,acts on limited knowledge then forms a belief (behavioural learning RF by good or bad choice)
Results in paradox ---> the less important the product is to consumers, the more important are the marketing stimuli (a catchy jingle, etc.)
Attitude Towards the Advertisement
Consumer not only has attitude to product but also to advertisement; advertisement can form the attitude for the product
Determinants of this include viewer's attitude toward advertiser, evaluation of ad, mood evoked by ad, arousal level created; viewer's feeling about where ad appears saw ad in favorite program)
Ads can evoke range of feelings. It can be way ad is done, advertiser motives: upbeat, warm or negative feelings.
We love puppies, kittens, babies
So what makes humans such softies for babies, puppies and little animals? See what the Wall Street Journal has to say below.
What ads annoy you? Why? is it the product? the execution? the repetition? the content?
Changing the attitude to product See Pepto Bismol Commercial
pairing product with pleasant/memorable jingle; instrumental conditioning where attitude is reinforced--it quenches your thirst..it's exactly as advertised; received reward; or complex cognitive process--modeling-friends are wearing using product celebrity does it/uses it. I fit in when I use _________.
Different categories: brand loyal consumer has deeply held attitude to attitude object; occasional user will abandon the product if something new /interesting comes along
Levels of Commitment to Attitude
Compliance-lowest level attitude formed because it helps gain reward or avoids punishment-superficial -behaviour may change when option available or others not around-it may be only brand available
Identification- when attitudes formed to be similar to another person/group-imitation
Internalization-high level deep seated attitudes internalized and part of value system example: Coke bring out new Coke
Principle of Cognitive Consistency
The belief that consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings and behaviours and that they are motivated to maintain uniformity in these elements; if necessary, consumers change their thoughts, feelings, behaviours to make them consistent with other experiences. How does this attitude fit with my other attitudes?
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
The theory that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviours, he/she will take some action to resolve the dissonance buy changing an attitude or behaviour; tends to explain why evaluation of product after purchase increases. I bought that; I am smart.
An alternative explanation of dissonance effects; it assumes that people use observations of their own behaviour to infer their attitudes towards some object; I keep buying x; I must like x; relevant for low involvement hierarchy
Based on the observation that a consumer is more likely to comply with a smaller request
Social Judgment Theory
Perspective that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they already know or feel; the initial attitude acts as a frame of reference, and new information is categorized in terms of this standard
Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection
Formed around an attitude standard; ideas that fall within a latitude will be favourably received while those falling outside this zone will not; the more involved with an attitude consumer is the narrower the latitude
Theory that considers relations among elements a person might perceive as belonging together, and people's tendency to change relations among elements in order to make them consistent or balanced; a unit relation is formed.
Attitude structure is triad consisting of
- a person and their perceptions
- an attitude object
- some other person or object.
Example: Monica likes Jerry, Jerry wears X, Monica does not like X--need to balance-balance means attitude is stable- explains celebrity endorsement
Multi-Attribute Attitude Models
Models that assume consumer's attitude of attitude object depends on beliefs about several or many attributes of the object; the use of multi-attribute model implies that an attitude towards a product or brand can be predicted by identifying specific beliefs and combining them to derive a measure of consumer's overall attitude .Elements: Attributes-characteristics, assumption is these can be identified;Beliefs-cognitions about object-extent that brand has particular attribute; Importance weight-priority of attribute-these vary across consumers
Most influential multi-attribute attitude Model measuring 1. salient beliefs(beliefs considered during evaluation) 2. object-attitude linkages (probability that a particular object has an important attribute 3. evaluation of each of the important attributes. Model assumes specification of relevant attributes,consumer identifies relevant attributes,weigh them and summarize.
Attitude score obtained by multiplying consumer's rating of each attribute for all brands considered by the importance rating for that attribute (problem:knowledge of consumer attitude doesn't predict behaviour) Link between attitude and behaviour?
Theory of Reasoned Action Extended Fishbein Model
An updated version of Fishbein multi-attitude theory (to improve predictability) that considers factors such as, social pressure, attitude toward act of buying a product, rather than the attitudes to the product itself. This theory aims to measure behavioural intention.
Attitude towards the act of buying
The perceived consequences of a purchase; how you feel about the purchase
Obstacles to Predicting using Reasoned Action
Model developed to deal with actual behaviour not outcome of behaviour; some outcomes are out of consumer control (might want something but be unable to get it); assumption that behaviour is intentional may be invalid: impulse, change in circumstance; novelty; repeat buying. It may not work across culture. Measure of attitude doesn't correspond to behaviour. Ttime frameis important; direct experience stronger predictor than an ad--need to induce a trial usage
What factors determine the effectiveness of a communication?
Can those factors be manipulated to modify or change an attitude?
Is the consumer a passive being brainwashed by media or is consumer active participant who uses media as resource to fulfill needs?
Persuasion: an active attempt to change attitudes; a central goal of a marketing communication
What questions must be answered before creating a message?
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
Framework specifying a number of elements for communications including source(encoding), message, medium(transmission), receiver, feedback (decoding) All have potential for noise
Today the simple communications model is limited; consumer is not a passive being, receptacle ;see Uses and Gratifications Theory -User generated content immediately uploaded is affecting the communications model. Where in the past the model of advertising was more push, today the emphasis on pull. The consumer can push a message and pull what interests him/her.
Uses and Gratifications Theory
Perspective that the consumer uses the media to meet more than strictly informational needs; consumer is ACTIVE; mass media is resource consumer draws on to satisfy needs "what do people do with their media; media competes is entertainment and diversion as well as information
(a blurred line between marketing and entertainment, escapism, play, self affirmation)
Levels of Interactive Response
Response is more than just buying, it's brand awareness, feature identification, reminder to buy, building a long term relationship. When a consumer creates a viral message for a product, he/she has become engaged with that brand.
First Order Response
A product offer that directly yields a response is first order. Revenue, sales data are source of feedback
Second Order Response
Customer feedback in response to a marketing message that is not a transaction is a second order response: request for information, join mailing list, referral to other
A communications source's perceived expertise, objectivity or trustworthiness, credibility is persuasive when new product, unknown. Building credibility; source's qualifications relevant to product; credibility is subjective decision
The source's perceived social value: physical appearance,personality, social status, similarity to receiver. Celebrity endorsement is attractive; star has cultural meaning, status, class. Star evokes a personality, match it to product
But will that star be attractive tomorrow? Think Martha Stewart, Tiger Woods, OJ Simpson, Kobe Bryant, Michael Vick
Theory that the dominant characteristics of a product should match the dominant features of communications source
Quality rating considers consumer's level of familiarity with name and number of respondents who indicate person, program or character is favourite
An organization that provides info on Q ratings is at http://www.qscores.com
When person who is rated highly on one feature is assumed to have other positive features. Example: attractive person is also assumed to be smart, and nice
The process whereby differences in attitude change between positive and negative sources seem to diminish over time (example Mr Whipple annoying "please don't squeeze the Charmin)
The Message/ Persuasivenes
To increase persuasiveness of message: need brand differentiating message: a unique attribute (USP=Unique Selling Proposition), benefit, convenient, improved features; indirect comparison, demonstration, tangible results
One-sided versus two sided arguments
Marketing message can be like persuasive debate. Most messages present one side, the positive supportive side. Can have two-sided message where positive and negative presented, not widely used. Two-sided argument is best when audience educated, when receiver not loyal
Should the message tell you what to think, or should you be left to conclude? Consumer who concludes on own tends to have stronger attitude, but not concluding can leave no conclusion. If argument is hard to follow, safer to draw conclusion
A strategy where message compares two or more specifically named brands and compares them in terms of one or more attributes. Yields mixed results. Can be effective in new product, or if doesn't reach too far .
Coke vs Pepsi https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
Emotional versus Rational Appeals
Which appeal depends on nature of product and relationship consumers have with it. Ads to support charitable functions often use emotional appeals. One recent anti-poverty campaign by an organization in Britain called Barnardo's was forced to axe a pre-Christmas advertising campaign after the Advertising Standards Authority ruled the content to be too shocking.
Read the story and see two other ads: Banned
Pushing the envelope in terms of the taste and tone of ads is a time-honored tactic in fields like apparel, footwear and fragrances, as smaller advertisers seek to appeal to consumers — particularly younger ones — by adopting the personas of risk-taking rule-breakers who defy the conventions of society. Read more in this New York Times article Shockvertising (inside link)
Levi's created one of the creepiest campaign's ever in their Unbutton your Beast campaign See the archived site herehttp://unbuttonyourbeast.evb-archive.com/
Pony athletic shoes campaign, with a budget estimated at $5 million to $7 million, is composed of print advertisements and posters with stark images designed to provoke double takes among the target audience of boys and men ages 15 to 25. In one ad, an infant with a tough look on his face stands to show tattoos on his stomach and leg
A new Vodka -Ivanabitch has already had their ads banned because of a Pickle see Ivanabitch (inside link)
See the scariest viral commercial ever for K-fee http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7fTeT3g1AA
French Connection UK -FCUK has gone back to using French Connection as their name but it hasn't stopped them from being controversial. In a 2006 television and cinema ad campaign, two women are shown kissing and tearing each other's clothes off in between exchanging kicks and punches, but their sales are down see FCUK-lesbian fisticuffs
Sex Appeals (Sex Sells Sometimes)
Female nudity causes negative reaction for women, men more positive; sex draws attention, but should not take away total attention; sex works when product is sexually related. Beer has often been marketed by using sexual images, but does it work and is it getting to be too "in your face?" To read more click, Sex is a pretty stale way to sell suds. Or read about Miller Beer's Catfight campaign
See the animals in this French Orangina commercial http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ck14LKBI9GM
Can sex sell breast cancer awareness? Read the story, decide Girls with Guns Target Breast Cancer(inside link)
Two reports, one from Headlight Vision, a market research company in New York and Chartered Institute of Marketing in England suggest that sexual ads don't have the earth-moving impact they once did; sexually explicit advertising is now considered boring or mundane by young consumers. Read more from the Toronto Star The Thrill is Gone- or is it?
Check out this UK 2003 commercial, Archers for the ladies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CLpeNhrpR1c
With Paris Hilton's Carl's Junior over the top ad, some companies are trying to push the limits. Plugg Jeans recently had it's overtly sexual ad Time Square billboard turned down by the building owner. See the ad and read more at Too Suggestive
How effective are these ads? Click Sex Appeal
Use of humour can be tricky. There are cultural aspects, gender aspect, generational aspects, personal aspects
Humour may get attention but it needs to be connected in a positive way with a brand. If it overwhelms the brand it may not be successful as well as personal taste aspects. Brand needs to be clear. Humour needs to be appropriate to product's image. Marketers are using weird and wacky humour to appeal to a younger market. What is funny to one group may be offensive to another group. A humour appeal needs to appeal to the specific target group without being offensive to it..
see Humour I don't think so to see a BC marketing mistake Check out these humourous print ads (inside link) See this John West Salmon Commercial http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUY77kth9_4
An attempt to change attitudes or behaviour through use of threats or by heightening of negative consequences of noncompliance with the request. (Stop smoking ads). Most effective when moderate level of fear; fear too great--->denial. Solution should be offered --Compare this fear ad to the above (emotional) banned ads : Fear ad (inside link)
See Mar 2006 study on fear and youth Anti-smoking ads freak kids out
In 2007 an ad campaign from the Italian label Nolita is using images of a nude, emaciated 27-year-old woman with the line "No. Anorexia" creating a debate that many in the fashion industry have tried to keep silent.
Is the image too scary? Read more at No Anorexia
Check these ads--->What type of appeal?
The use of an explicit comparison between a product and some other person, place or thing
A literary device frequently used in advertising that employs a play on words (a double meaning) to communicate a product benefit Bounce Fabric softener: Is there something creeping up behind you?
Give consumer sense he/she is in on it and "gets" the inside message
A story or drama draws viewer in emotionally
Example: Taster's Choice Couple - In the 1990s Taster's Choice coffee began running serialized commercial spots that followed the romantic encounters of a man and a woman whose shared a fondness for Taster's Choice.
The commercials created a soap opera environment which teased the viewers to tune in next commercial to see whether the attractive couple would progress beyond just sharing a cup of coffee to possibly sharing a date, or dare we hope... a bed? The successful commercial spots produced a 10 percent increase in products sales soon after they aired. The Taster's Choice ad originated in England in 1987 for a Gold Blend Coffee Campaign; Mr. Head and Ms. Maugham reprised their roles in the U.S. campaign in 1990. The McCann-Erickson ad agency created the Gold Blend/Taster's Choice coffee campaign in both Britain and America. Gold Blend was the No. 2 instant coffee in the UK after Nescafe.
see the series of ads
Consumer associates the experience of product usage with some subjective sensation
Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM
The Elaboration Likelihood Model is the approach that one of two routes to persuasion (central versus peripheral) will be followed depending on the personal relevance of a message, the route taken determines the relative importance of message contents versus other characteristics such as source attractiveness. ELM has received research support
The Two Routes of the Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM
References as noted above and: Solomon, Michael R., Zaichkowsky, Judith and Rosemary Polegato. Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having, Being. Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada
Information on this site is for use of the students of this course. For copyright information of the linked sites please see the respective authors.