Does the Self Exist?
Is the Self viewed differently in different cultures?
Who are you? See Betty White Superbowl Ad 2010 http://youtu.be/uA7-31Cxc2I
|The Self Concept||
|The Looking-Glass Self||
|Symbolic Self-Completion Theory||
|Self-image Congruence Models||
|The Extended Self||
Who are we? Are we more than one person to different people and in different situations?
What different roles do you play in your life?
We are like actors playing roles in different situations-"role identities"
Symbolic Interaction Theory
Symbolic interaction stresses that relationships with others play a large part in forming the self; meaning is attached to symbols; we have shared meanings for signs; assessing who we are is in constant change
We tend to pattern our behaviour on perceived expectations of others in a self-fulfilling prophecy
We are affected by self-consciousness to different degrees; some are concerned with their image and are high self-monitors who evaluate products on the effect they will have on others
CONSUMPTION AND THE SELF CONCEPT
Some products are so important to the role we play that they become part of the extended self
Loss of Self can be experienced when things are stolen or possessions no allowed: prison wear, school uniform
People use an individual's consumption behaviours to make judgments about them; example-a person who eats a salad versus a person who eats a big burger; person who wears jeans versus suit-even the type of jeans
Name a valued possession that you are wrapped up in. How much like you is it?
Marketer's make it easy-Want to make a model of yourself and try on clothes? Check out http://modelmyoutfit.com/ Companies now are using 3D augmented reality mirrors to let you see how a product will look on you. See this example
Does your gender determine the cereal you buy or the soda you purchase?
Do we conform to the cultural expectations of our gender?
Society's assumptions about proper roles are communicated to us in many ways including advertising. Unlike maleness and femaleness masculinity and femininity are not biologic
Sextyping of products is perpetuated by advertising- What products can you think of that are masculine/feminine? Ads can perpetuate cheesecake role of woman or beefcake role of man. Stereotyping - JC Penny: Beware the Doghouse http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eyduncFpzl4
Gay and lesbian consumers are noticed by marketers more today. Many couples have dual incomes without dependents.
See this early European example the Boy Toy Commercial http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdTyISEM-D8
Some researchers (Ruth Malone, PhD) believe that the tobacco industry has unethically targeted the gay community which in turn relates to increased smoking in gay men (Gay Health website found 48.5% of gay and bisexual men reported smoking versus 28.6% for straight men)
Advertisers today target gays and lesbians with 6.8% of the US lesbian, gay or bisexual and with $641 buying power, marketers are realize it's takes more than using a rainbow flag in an ad.
For an interesting overview of LGBTQ advertising see The Commercial Closet:The World's Largest Collection of Gay Advertising The organization now is also known as AdRespect
Can you think of recent ads that are more inclusive?
Ad Age has a great list of 2015 Top LGBT themed ads that you can see here.
Read about LGBTQ best practices on the Human Rights Campaign website LGBTQ Marketing and Advertising Best Practices
Men: Gender Roles and Stereotypes
Marketers are constantly on the lookout to identify new trends and to label any new target market; in the last decade marketers paid attention to the Metrosexual market defined as a man tough on the inside but soft around the edges: He loves designer clothes, but is comfortable competing in sport but he's not gay. David Beckham the British soccer player is often used as an example- he wears nail polish, changes his hairstyle regularly is married to Posh Spice and doesn't mind being admired by either sex.
Creating a category of metrosexual, created the opporunity to create all sorts of products that men formally did not use.
in 2005 some marketers started to reject the metrosexual pitch for a more politically incorrect pitch with sex, wacky humor and "bad-boy" attitude. Carl's Jr Burger chain has Paris Hilton in their ads and Axe uses the over the top male pitch
In this commercial Bud Lite helps women exchange their metrosexual for a Bud man http://vimeo.com/16700138
2009-10-11 MEN- When men are Men?
According to Ad Age (Sept 21, 2009) Alcohol Advertising began taking a new approach. Ads began to ask men to live by "the Code" of chivalry and say things like, "Damn right your dad drank it" and "Guys never Change" In a rejection of the metrosexual, it is harkening back to the era of Mad Me . People were going out less and drinking at home more. Consumers also were downgrading to lower price. This trend was about "Man Laws." Timeless masculinity is comforting in unstable times. In a recession caused by greed, brands want to be selfless and workmanlike read more http://adage.com/article?article_id=139126
in the 2010 Superbowl Dodge Charger created Man's Last Stand..telling everything a man might do and all for a Charger http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hPmYxLUoZVc
2015 Trend The Dad Bod
Today we even see the Dad Bod."He's not 'beach body ready', he eats too much and he hasn't been to the gym recently, but the 'dadbod' is the internet's new favourite male stereotype, says Chris Mandle" See this Australian ad https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_xXlssCGpHk
For years women have complained about being stereotyped. There has been a backlash with organizations --Society for the Prevention of Misandry in the Media - fathersandhusbands.org (this one didn't last) and Standyourground.com -- coming out complaining about the recurring image in ads of "men as idiots" There's even a blog dedicated to stupid men commercials http://stupidmancommercials.blogspot.com/
Body image is the subjective picture or mental image of one's own body. A person's satisfaction of self is linked to their culture's idea of beauty. Physical appearance is a large part of a person's self-concept. Our body image is not always correct; man may feel he is muscular; woman may feel she is fat. Marketing strategies often exploit a consumer's tendency to distort themselves increasing the gap between what is real and imagined
A 2015 report from Common Sense Media found that children as young as 5 are worried about body image. Over 50% girls and 30% of boys 6 to 8 years old think their ideal weight is lower than their current weight.
What products appeal to our fears of body image?
Campaigns can be sneaky-In 2005 a mysterious campaign started appearing with the line "I am Julie"- In the first ad, Julie is floating in gently rippling water: "Last vacation was the first time I ever dared to wear a bikini!" The ads end with "Ask your doctor about Julie's story. Medical treatment options available." What was it all about? It was an ad for a diet drug.
See About Face (outside link) to read about and see examples of stereotyping , objectification, and offensive ads
The Beginnings of Femvertising (defined as advertising that employs pro-female talent, messages, and imagery to empower women and girls)
in 2004-5 Dove started a campaign celebrating real women with a Dove website and in August 2005 Nike introduced a campaign also saluting real women and their "big butts, thunder thighs"
See Dove campaign https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYhCn0jf46U and Dove Onslaught https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zKfF40jeCA
Does Dove really care or is it marketing? What do you think?
See a parody here http://ca.youtube.com/watch?v=SwDEF-w4rJk
Read what CMO magazine has to say about the above campaigns Real Beauty- Real Sales?
Ad Age reported in Oct 2009 that German magazine Brigitte as of 2010 they would no longer use models in its pages. Instead they will use real women from various areas, their staff, women readers -see the article http://adage.com/globalnews/article?article_id=139485 The article also talks about French politicians writing legislation that demands that air-brushed photos be identified as such, and as notes that in Spain there is a minimum body-mass index for models.
Thinness: An Obsession!!
Wonderbra: Woman as object
Femvertising is the trend for brands to sell female empowerment. Dove was early on with the movement, but there are now numerous others, that often include hashtags like #unstoppable, # LikeAGirl, #ShineStrong, #InspireHerMind, etc. Joh St., a Toronto agency has parodied the genre.
"To cater to the increasingly popular trend of femvertising, john st. has opened jane st., an agency that specializes in empowering women through advertising. Visit www.janest.ca to discover how your brand can leverage girlpower to help boost women’s self-esteem, and most importantly, your bottom line." (source: John St video "Jane St")
Caution: The parody below contains some racy content.
What do you think of the parody? How do you feel about femvertising?
Is beauty universal? (balance. waist hip ratio)
To read about the amazing appearances of the peculiar number 1.618... in nature, the arts, and psychology. See The golden ratio and aesthetics (http://plus.maths.org/issue22/features/golden/ )
For an interesting read on the Myth of universal beauty see this BBC article
Has the ideal beauty changed over time?
As consumers try to match to an ideal, much effort is put into altering the body; diets, surgery, clothing. All these alterations involve spending money, usually buying something or buying into something
What preconceived ideas do we have about hair? What ways do cultures decorate the body? What is acceptable in our culture? How has it changed over the years?
Body decoration may serve functions of separating group members from non members, mark individuals or provide sense of security.
How have marketers influenced these ideas? Is it good or bad? Can we really just be who we are and feel good about it?
Reference as noted above and: Solomon, Michael R., Zaichkowsky, Judith and Rosemary Polegato. Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having, Being. Fifth Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada
Information on this site is for use of the students of this course. For copyright information of the linked sites please see the respective authors.